Thyroid cancer affects the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing hormones that help in controlling metabolism and calcium levels in the body. This type of cancer is more common in women than in men. About two thirds of thyroid cancers are diagnosed in people between the age of 20 and 55.

However, it is important to know that Thyroid cancer is different from other thyroid conditions, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

The most uncommon, cancers found in the thyroid are thyroid lymphomas, thyroid sarcomas, or other rare tumors (less than 4% only).

Causes of thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer happens when there's a change to the DNA inside thyroid cells which causes them to grow uncontrollably and produce a lump.

It's not usually clear what causes this change, but there are a number of things that can increase your risk.

These include:

  • other thyroid conditions, such as an inflamed thyroid (thyroiditis) or goitre – but not an overactive thyroid or underactive thyroid
  • a family history of thyroid cancer – your risk is higher if a close relative has had thyroid cancer
  • radiation exposure in childhood – such as radiotherapy
  • obesity
  • a bowel condition called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  • acromegaly– a rare condition where the body produces too much growth hormone



Types of Thyroid Cancer


Papillary thyroid cancer

Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer, that arises from follicular cells, which make and store thyroid hormones. Papillary thyroid cancer may occur at any age, but generally, it affects people between the age of 30-50.

Follicular thyroid cancer

Follicular thyroid cancer usually affects people older than 50 years. It also arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. Hurthle cell cancer is a rare type of thyroid cancer that grows very aggressively.

Medullary thyroid cancer

Medullary thyroid cancer starts in thyroid cells known as parafollicular C cells that produce the hormone calcitonin. High levels of calcitonin in the blood may indicate the early stage of medullary thyroid cancer. Certain genetic syndromes increase the risk of medullary thyroid cancer.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare type of cancer that grows very fast and is very difficult to treat. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, in general, affects the adult's age 60 and older.

Thyroid lymphoma.

Thyroid lymphoma is a very rare type of thyroid cancer that starts in the immune system cells in the thyroid and grows very fast. Thyroid lymphoma usually occurs in older adults. When properly diagnosed and treated, the prospects are very good



People with thyroid cancer may experience:

  • A lump in the front of the neck
  • Swollen glands in the neck
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Pain in the throat or neck
  • A cough that persists and is not caused by a cold


To diagnose thyroid cancer early, it is better to know the common symptoms of thyroid disorders like fatigue, muscle weakness, weight gain, and cold sensitivity. If you locate a lump in the front of the neck, find that you have difficulty swallowing or experience unusual hoarseness in your voice, discuss it with your doctor. He will check your neck and guide for further investigation. Early diagnosis and treatment remain the cornerstone of thyroid cancer management.

Thyroid cancers are often diagnosed by routine examination of the neck or are found by x-rays, thyroid biopsy or other imaging scans such as ultrasound. There are several types of blood tests such as TSH, Tg & TgAb, and MTC to diagnose thyroid cancer.

Treatment Options

Sanjeevani was the first hospital to introduce the concept of a multidisciplinary team known as Tumor Board, consisting of Radiation Oncologists, Medical Oncologists and Surgical Oncologists collaborate to jointly plan and implement the most optimal treatment protocol review each case to ensure that every patient receives optimum care for thyroid cancer. All the treatment decisions are evidence based and follow the VIA pathways and protocols. The treatment methods may involve Radiation Oncology, Medical oncology or Surgical Oncology or combinations of the same.

Sanjeevani provides complete cancer care treatment using state-of-the-art technologies such as Trubeam backed by the most modern diagnostic equipment such as PET CT and digital mammograms to ensure that our diagnosis and treatment are precise and effective.

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