Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

At Sanjeevani all the tests performed are closely monitored and quality controlled.

This large array of tests can be categorised into sub-specialities of:     

  • General or routine chemistry – commonly ordered blood chemistries (e.g., liver and kidney function tests).
  • Special chemistry - elaborate techniques such as electrophoresis, and manual testing methods.
  • Clinical endocrinology – the study of hormones, and diagnosis of endocrine disorders.
  • Urinalysis – chemical analysis of urine for a wide array of diseases, along with other fluids such as CSF and effusions
  • Fecal analysis – mostly for detection of gastrointestinal disorders.


Common clinical chemistry tests include:


  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Chloride
  • Bicarbonate

Renal (Kidney) Function Tests

  • Creatinine
  • Blood urea nitrogen

Liver Function Tests

  • Total protein (serum)
  • Albumin
  • Globulins
  • A/G ratio (albumin-globulin)
  • Protein electrophoresis
  • Urine protein
  • Bilirubin; direct; indirect; total
  • Aspartate transaminase (AST)
  • Alanine transaminase (ALT)
  • Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

Cardiac Markers

  • H-FABP
  • Troponin
  • Myoglobin
  • CK-MB
  • B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)


  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphate
  • Potassium

Blood Disorders

  • Iron
  • Transferrin
  • TIBC
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin D
  • Folic acid


  • Glucose
  • C-reactive protein
  • Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
  • Uric acid
  • Arterial blood gases ([H+], PCO2, PO2)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  • Toxicological screening and forensic toxicology (drugs and toxins)

Panel tests

A set of commonly ordered tests are combined into a panel:


  •  Basic metabolic panel (BMP) - 8 tests - sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, calcium
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Clinical Serology

What are serologic tests?

 Serologic tests are blood tests that look for antibodies in your blood. They can involve a number of laboratory techniques. Different types of serologic tests are used to diagnose various disease conditions.

 Serologic tests have one thing in common. They all focus on proteins made by your immune system. This vital body system helps keep you healthy by destroying foreign invaders that can make you ill. The process for having the test is the same regardless of which technique the laboratory uses during serologic testing.

Why do I need a serologic test?

It’s helpful to know a little about the immune system and why we get sick to understand serologic tests and why they’re useful.

 Antigens are substances that provoke a response from the immune system. They’re usually too small to see with the naked eye. They can enter the human body through the mouth, through broken skin, or through the nasal passages. Antigens that commonly affect people include the following:

  •  bacteria
  • fungi
  • viruses
  • parasites

The immune system defends against antigens by producing antibodies. These antibodies are particles that attach to the antigens and deactivate them. When your doctor tests your blood, they can identify the type of antibodies and antigens that are in your blood sample, and identify the type of infection you have.

 Sometimes the body mistakes its own healthy tissue for outside invaders and produces unnecessary antibodies. This is known as an autoimmune disorder. Serologic testing can detect these antibodies and help your doctor diagnose an autoimmune disorder.

 What happens during a serologic test?

A blood sample is all that the laboratory needs to conduct serologic testing.

The test will occur in your doctor’s office. Your doctor will insert a needle into your vein and collect blood for a sample. The doctor may simply pierce the skin with a lancet if conducting serologic testing on a young child.

The testing procedure is quick. The pain level for most people isn’t severe. Excessive bleeding and infection may occur, but the risk of either of these is low.

 What are the types of serologic tests?

Antibodies are diverse. So, there are various tests for detecting the presence of different types of antibodies. These include:

  • An agglutination assay shows whether antibodies exposed to certain antigens will cause particle clumping.
  • A precipitation test shows whether the antigens are similar by measuring for the presence of antibody in body fluids.
  • The Western blot test identifies the presence of antimicrobial antibodies in your blood by their reaction with target antigens.

Serology tests in the laboratory include:

  • markers of Hepatitis B infection or past infection
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Rubella immune status.



Clinical Pathology

Clinical pathology covers many lab functions. It is concerned with disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clinical pathologists are healthcare providers with special training. They often direct all of the special divisions of the lab. This may include the following:

  • Blood bank
  • Clinical chemistry and biology
  • Toxicology
  • Hematology
  • Immunology and serology
  • Microbiology

Clinical pathology also includes maintenance of information systems, research, and quality control.

What does a clinical pathologist do?

A clinical pathologist looks at blood, urine, and other body fluid samples under a microscope, or with other diagnostic tools. He or she watches levels of certain chemicals or other substances in the body. A diagnosis or decision to do further study is then made based on the test results. Samples for exam can include any of these:

Types of specimens used in clinical pathology


Blood is used in many tests. It can be checked in these ways:

  • As a "whole"

  • As the fluid left when red and white blood cells are removed (plasma)

  • As a clear fluid that separates from blood when it clots (serum)

 Blood is often drawn with a needle from a vein, often in the forearm. Sometimes the tip of the finger is pricked and then squeezed to draw blood.


Urine is also used for many tests. Urine samples can be collected by:

  • Random method. The person urinates in a cup.

  • Clean catch specimen. The outer genital area has been cleaned before urinating in a cup.

  • Sterile urine test. This needs catheterization. A tube is put into the urethra and goes to the bladder to get urine.

Sometimes a healthcare provider will need you to do a timed test. This is to measure substances passed into the urine over several hours.

Sputum (also called phlegm)

Sputum can be coughed into a clean container.

Stool (also called feces)

Stool is often collected by the person in a clean cardboard or plastic container.

Other body fluids

Other body fluids collected for testing may include:

  • Spinal fluid

  • Pleural fluids. These fluids are around the lungs or in the space between the 2 membranes that surround the lungs (pleural cavity). 

  • Belly fluids

  • Joint fluids

  • Bone marrow

Clinical Biochemistry

The laboratory at SCCH possesses advanced automatic machines supported by expert MD Pathologists, Hematologists and Technicians who provide laboratory testing for all the inpatients and outpatients. It works on a hospital-wide information system for ordering and reporting laboratory tests.

SCCH laboratory is holding tie-up with labs like Dr Lal path labs & Urmi Diagnostics, of national repute and take their services for many special tests.

The services offered by the lab include Biochemistry, Hematology, Histopathology, Microbiology, Clinical Pathology, Transfusion Medicine, Blood Bank, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Molecular Genetics, Cytogenesis, Genetic counselling and predictive tests for Cancer. 

The efficient practice of modern medicine rests on a base support of a sound diagnostic backup facility. The diagnostic laboratory of Artemis Hospitals is equipped with the latest state of the art equipments for its Pathology, Microbiology & Biochemistry Divisions. Our objective is to provide consistent, reliable and timely reports to facilitate optimum patient care. For the convenience of the patients, there is a common collection centre for all laboratory samples in the hospital. The laboratory offers over 3,000 routine and highly advanced diagnostic, genetic and molecular biology tests.

 Various Subsections Of Lab Are:

•Clinical pathology
•Frozen section
•Molecular biology
•Special chemistry


Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots (thrombus), other bleeding disorders, and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma

S.C.C.H is the first hospital in Chhattisgarh possessing Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit with an advanced blood bank.


Physicians specialized in hematology are known as hematologists or haematologists.

Hematologists may specialize further or have special interests, for example, in:


  • treating bleeding disorders such as hemophilia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • treating hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukemia (cancers)
  • treating hemoglobinopathies
  • the science of blood transfusion and the work of a blood bank
  • bone marrow and stem cell transplantation



Haematology is the specialty responsible for the diagnosis and management of a wide range of benign and malignant disorders of the red and white blood cells, platelets and the coagulation system in adults and children.


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